fredag 30 oktober 2009

Zionism: Opposition to and criticism of Zionism. Part 11.

Zionism was opposed by a wide variety of organizations and individuals, particularly after 1948. The Arab League and Arab Higher Committee rejected the UN Partition Plan (United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181) approving the creation of a Jewish and Arab state in Palestine,] and viewed Israel as occupying "Arab land".
Arab states continue to reject the Zionist philosophy which underwrote the creation of Israel and in particular maintain that the displacement of some 700,000 Arab refugees in the 1948 Palestinian exodus and the subsequent conflict is the inevitable consequence of the concept of a Jewish State.

Haredi Jewish communities are non-Zionist but willing to participate in Israeli coalitions. A minority, (the Satmar Hasidim and the small Neturei Karta group) are strongly anti-Zionist.

Before Hitler, Jews seeking to assimilate in Europe feared that Zionism would undermine their claims to citizenship since anti-semites claim that Jews are disloyal to their "host" societies.
These Jews sought to define themselves as loyal citizens of a different faith, sometimes styling themselves "of the Mosaic persuasion" . This movement was particularly prevalent in Germany, where most Jews supported German nationalism.

Non-Zionist Israeli movements, such as the Canaanite movement led by poet Yonatan Ratosh in the 1930s and 1940s, have argued that "Israeli" should be a new pan-ethnic nationality.
A related modern movement is known as post-Zionism, which asserts that Israel should abandon the concept of a "state of the Jewish people" and instead strive to be a state of all its citizens. Another opinion favors a binational state in which Arabs and Jews live together while enjoying some type of autonomy.

During the last quarter of 20th century, classic nationalism in Israel declined. This led to the rise of two antagonistic movements: neo-Zionism and post-Zionism.
Both movements mark the Israeli version of a worldwide phenomenon:
the emergence of globalization, a market society and liberal culture
a local backlash.

Neo-Zionism and post-Zionism share traits with "classical" Zionism but differ by accentuating antagonist and diametrically opposed poles already present in Zionism.
"Neo Zionism accentuates the messianic and particularistic dimensions of Zionist nationalism, while post-Zionism accentuates its normalising and universalistic dimensions".

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